Enteroviruses are common human viruses and in most instances cause only mild symptoms. However there are many different species and serotypes including Echoviruses (31 serotypes), Polioviruses (3 serotypes), Coxsackieviruses A (23 serotypes) and Coxsackieviruses B (6 serotypes) and some of these strains can cause serious illness.
EV71 & Coxsackie A16: Major causes of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease and can lead to complications including meningitis (can be fatal).
EV70: Causes acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis which can lead to non-ophthalmic symptoms, such as neurologic dysfunction and permanent polio-like paralysis.
It is estimated that more than one billion people worldwide are affected annually and infants and children are especially at risk. Infections can happen any time of the year, but summer and early fall are the main seasons. Summer camps and day care centers are common places for outbreaks.
Infection is usually confirmed by virus isolation or serologically by detection of specific antibodies (IgM or IgA). Serological assays having broad reactivity to multiple serotypes are the most useful in urgent care settings.
>Infectious Diseases & Toxins